The 2023 National Offshore Wind Data Set (NOW-23)

Nicola Bodini, Mike Optis, Stephanie Redfern, David Rosencrans, Alex Rybchuk, Julie Lundquist, Vincent Pronk, Simon Castagneri, Avi Purkayastha, Caroline Draxl, Raghavendra Krishnamurthy, Ethan Young, Billy Roberts, Evan Rosenlieb, Walter Musial

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This article introduces the 2023 National Offshore Wind data set (NOW-23), which offers the latest wind resource information for offshore regions in the United States. NOW-23 supersedes, for its offshore component, the Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit, which was published a decade ago and is currently a primary resource for wind resource assessments and grid integration studies in the contiguous United States. By incorporating advancements in numerical weather prediction modeling, NOW-23 delivers an updated and cutting-edge product to stakeholders. In this article, we present the new data set, which underwent regional tuning and performance validation against available observations. We also provide a summary of the uncertainty quantification in NOW-23, along with NOW-WAKES, a 1-year post-construction data set that quantifies expected offshore wake effects in the U.S. mid-Atlantic lease areas. Stakeholders can access the NOW-23 data set at (Bodini et al., 2020).
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1965-2006
Number of pages42
JournalEarth System Science Data
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5000-87730


  • NOW-23
  • offshore wind
  • Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit
  • WRF


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