The Area Localized Coupled Model for Analytical Mean Flow Prediction in Arbitrary Wind Farm Geometries: Article No. 033305

Genevieve Starke, Charles Meneveau, Jennifer King, Dennica Gayme

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus Citations


This work introduces the area localized coupled (ALC) model, which extends the applicability of approaches that couple classical wake superposition models and atmospheric boundary layer models to wind farms with arbitrary layouts. Coupling wake and top–down boundary layer models is particularly challenging since the latter requires averaging over planform areas associated with turbine-specific regions of the flow that need to be specified. The ALC model uses Voronoi tessellation to define this local area around each turbine. A top–down description of a developing internal boundary layer is then applied over Voronoi cells upstream of each turbine to estimate the local mean velocity profile. Coupling between the velocity at hub-height based on this localized top–down model and a wake model is achieved by enforcing a minimum least-square-error in mean velocity in each cell. The wake model in the present implementation takes into account variations in wind farm inflow velocity and represents the wake profile behind each turbine as a super-Gaussian function that smoothly transitions between a top-hat shape in the region immediately following the turbine to a Gaussian profile downstream. Detailed comparisons to large-eddy simulation (LES) data from two different wind farms demonstrate the efficacy of the model in accurately predicting both wind farm power output and local turbine hub-height velocity for different wind farm geometries. These validations using data generated from two different LES codes demonstrate the model's versatility with respect to capturing results from different simulation setups and wind farm configurations.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2021

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5000-80394


  • atmospheric dynamics
  • boundary layer flow
  • flow velocity
  • turbulent flows
  • Voronoi diagrams
  • wind energy
  • wind turbines


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