The Battery Failure Databank: Insights from an Open-Access Database of Thermal Runaway Behaviors of Li-Ion Cells and a Resource for Benchmarking Risks: Article No. 234106

Donal Finegan, Julia Billman, Jacob Darst, Peter Hughes, Jesus Trillo, Matt Sharp, Alex Benson, Martin Pham, Inez Kesuma, Mark Buckwell, Hamish Reid, Charlie Kirchner-Burles, Matilda Fransson, David Petrushenko, Thomas Heenan, Rhodri Jervis, Rhodri Owen, Drasti Patel, Ludovic Broche, Alexander RackOxana Magdysyuk, Matt Keyser, William Walker, Paul Shearing, Eric Darcy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus Citations

Abstract

The thermal response of Li-ion cells can greatly vary for identical cell designs tested under identical conditions, the distribution of which is costly to fully characterize experimentally. The open-source Battery Failure Databank presented here contains robust, high-quality data from hundreds of abuse tests spanning numerous commercial cell designs and testing conditions. Data was gathered using a fractional thermal runaway calorimeter and contains the fractional breakdown of heat and mass that was ejected, as well as high-speed synchrotron radiography of the internal dynamic response of cells during thermal runaway. The distribution of thermal output, mass ejection, and internal response of commercial cells are compared for different abuse-test conditions, which when normalized on a per amp-hour basis show a strong positive correlation between heat output from cells, the fraction of mass ejected from the cells, their energy- and power-density. Ejected mass was shown to contain 10x more heat per gram than non-ejected mass. The causes of 'outlier' thermal and ejection responses i.e., extreme cases, are elucidated by high-speed radiography which showed how occurrences such as vent clogging can create more hazardous conditions. High-speed radiography also demonstrated how the time-resolved interplay of thermal runaway propagation and mass ejection influences the total heat generated.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Volume597
DOIs
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5700-87431

Keywords

  • battery
  • Li-ion
  • safety
  • X-ray

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