The Dependence of Algal H2 Production on Photosystem II and O2 Consumption Activities in Sulfur-Deprived Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Cells

T. K. Antal, T. E. Krendeleva, T. V. Laurinavichene, V. V. Makarova, M. L. Ghirardi, A. B. Rubin, A. A. Tsygankov, M. Seibert

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172 Scopus Citations


Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultures, deprived of inorganic sulfur, undergo dramatic changes during adaptation to the nutrient stress [Biotechnol. Bioeng. 78 (2002) 731]. When the capacity for Photosystem II (PSII) O2 evolution decreases below that of respiration, the culture becomes anaerobic [Plant Physiol. 122 (2000) 127]. We demonstrate that (a) the photochemical activity of PSII, monitored by in situ fluorescence, also decreases slowly during the aerobic period; (b) at the exact time of anaerobiosis, the remaining PSII activity is rapidly down regulated; and (c) electron transfer from PSII to PSI abruptly decreases at that point. Shortly thereafter, the PSII photochemical activity is partially restored, and H2 production starts. Hydrogen production, which lasts for 3-4 days, is catalyzed by an anaerobically induced, reversible hydrogenase. While most of the reductants used directly for H2 gas photoproduction come from water, the remaining electrons must come from endogenous substrate degradation through the NAD(P)H plastoquinone (PQ) oxido-reductase pathway. We propose that the induced hydrogenase activity provides a sink for electrons in the absence of other alternative pathways, and its operation allows the partial oxidation of intermediate photosynthetic carriers, including the PQ pool, between PSII and PSI. We conclude that the reduced state of this pool, which controls PSII photochemical activity, is one of the main factors regulating H2 production under sulfur-deprived conditions. Residual O2 evolved under these conditions is probably consumed mostly by the aerobic oxidation of storage products linked to mitochondrial respiratory processes involving both the cytochrome oxidase and the alternative oxidase. These functions maintain the intracellular anaerobic conditions required to keep the hydrogenase enzyme in the active, induced form.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)153-160
Number of pages8
JournalBBA - Bioenergetics
Issue number2-3
StatePublished - 2003

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-590-35920


  • Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
  • O consumption
  • Photosystem II


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