The Effect of Dopant Concentration and Annealing Treatments on N-Type Iodine Doped CdTe

Jing Shang, Magesh Murugesan, Samuel Bigbee-Hansen, Santosh Swain, Joel Duenow, Steve Johnston, Scott Beckman, Harvey Walker, Raine Antonio, John McCloy

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1 Scopus Citations


We report properties of highly conducting n-type cadmium telluride single crystals doped with iodine (CdTe:I). These crystals were grown with dopant concentrations in the range of 1017 cm−3 to 1019 cm−3 by Modified Vertical Bridgman (MVB) melt growth. Post-growth dopant activation, including Cd annealing, Te annealing, and rapid thermal annealing (RTA), was applied to improve free carrier density. The structural, optical, and electrical properties were analyzed by Glow Discharge Mass Spectroscopy (GDMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Photoluminescence Spectroscopy (PL), optical absorption, Hall measurements, Capacitance-Voltage (CV) measurements, and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL). The results indicate that Cd annealing is the most effective activation method to get 100 % donor activation (n ≈ 2 ×1018 cm−3), which is close to the room temperature solubility limit of iodine. This leads to the lowest resistivity and the highest mobility. Moreover, this data suggests a potential role of Cd vacancy-related defects on electrical self-compensation.

Original languageAmerican English
Article numberArticle No. 170625
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Alloys and Compounds
StatePublished - 15 Oct 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier B.V.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-85337


  • Annealing
  • CdTe
  • Crystal growth
  • Hall-effect
  • Iodine doped
  • Time-resolved photoluminescence


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