The Effect of Sub-Oxide Phases on the Transparency of Tin-Doped Gallium Oxide: Article No. 141909

Andriy Zakutayev, Stephan Lany, David Ginley, K. Lim, L. Schelhas, S. Siah, R. Brandt, B. Gorman, C. Sun, T. Buonassisi, M. Toney

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9 Scopus Citations


There have been a number of studies on the fabrication of Sn-doped gallium oxide (Ga2O3:Sn) films with both conductive and transparent properties using a variety of deposition methods. However, often, synthesis results in films that are not transparent. In this paper, we examine the mechanisms underlying these results in Ga2O3:Sn thin films prepared at various growth temperatures, Sn concentrations, and oxygen partial pressures. With X-ray absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, we find that when films are grown under the oxygen deficient conditions there are Ga sub-oxide and SnOx phases in the Ga2O3:Sn thin film. These Ga sub-oxide phases are only found in non-transparent films, and so we infer that the Ga sub-oxide is responsible for the non-transparency. These observations suggest that to obtain transparent Ga2O3:Sn, films deposition or subsequent annealing must be carefully controlled in both temperature and oxygen partial pressure to avoid the formation of Ga sub-oxide phases.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages5
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number14
StatePublished - 2016

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-67389


  • extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy
  • thin film growth
  • transmission electron microscopy
  • X-ray absorption near edge structure
  • X-ray absorption spectroscopy


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