The Impact of Ink and Spray Variables on Catalyst Layer Properties, Electrolyzer Performance, and Electrolyzer Durability

Shaun Alia, Kimberly Reeves, Jefferey Baxter, David Cullen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus Citations


In proton exchange membrane-based electrolysis, cell-level performance and durability is affected not only by individual components, but also by how those components are integrated into membrane electrode assemblies. In this study, several ink and ultrasonic spray parameters are evaluated for their effect on catalyst layer properties, electrolyzer performance, and electrolyzer durability. The relative impact of these variables on kinetic and ohmic loss were revealed and linked to catalyst layer morphology. Ionomer loading and dispersion principally affect kinetics and accelerate kinetic loss over time. Catalyst layer uniformity, however, tends to affect ohmic loss, where poor catalyst-transport layer contact adds resistances, increases ohmic loss, and accelerates ohmic loss over time. These efforts to understand catalyst layer formation and the impact of catalyst layer properties on electrolyzer performance and durability aid in the establishment of robust baselines and better inform component development efforts and manufacturing processes. Separating losses and quantifying how losses change during extended operation are also useful as a diagnostics approach to elucidate why suboptimal performance/durability occurs and develop strategies to mitigate loss.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number144512
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number14
StatePublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Author(s). Published on behalf of The Electrochemical Society by IOP Publishing Limited.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-78115


  • durability
  • electrolysis


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