The Influence of Sol-Gel Processing on the Electrochromic Properties of Mesoporous WO3 Films Produced by Ultrasonic Spray Deposition

Chi Ping Li, Feng Lin, Ryan M. Richards, Chaiwat Engtrakul, Robert C. Tenent, Colin A. Wolden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus Citations

Abstract

High performance mesoporous tungsten oxide films were deposited by ultrasonic spray deposition using templated sol-gel chemistry. The dynamics of both sol preparation and hydrolysis were investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy. A stable sol was formed after 12 h, while optimum electrochromic performance was obtained for 12 h of hydrolysis. Electrochromic performance is strongly correlated to the annealing conditions, with optimized films displaying coloration efficiency >50 cm2/C and switching times <10 s. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that WO3 produced under optimized conditions were free of hydroxyl and carbonate impurities. Performance scaled with the specific surface area and nanoscale morphology. The WO3 films display good long term cycling durability up to 2500 cycles, which was attributed to the high degree of film crystallinity.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)163-170
Number of pages8
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Volume121
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2014

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-61051

Keywords

  • Durability
  • Electrochromic
  • Mesoporous
  • Sol-gel
  • Tungsten oxide
  • Ultrasonic spray deposition

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