The Second Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP2): General Overview

Caroline Draxl, Julie Lundquist, William Shaw, Larry Berg, Joel Cline, Irina Djalalova, Eric Grimit, Melinda Marquis, Jim McCaa, Joseph Olson, Chitra Sivaraman, Justin Sharp, James Wilczak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus Citations


WFIP2 was a comprehensive field and modeling study aimed at improving wind forecasts at wind turbine heights in complex terrain. A unique and valuable feature of WFIP2 was the 18-month duration of the comprehensively nested observational component. To our knowledge, no other complex-terrain datasets document this spatial and temporal range to provide opportunities to validate model improvements with comprehensive observations. An additional strength of this study was the collaboration among DOE and NOAA laboratories and industry. Not only were the research teams able to make significant advances in fundamental atmospheric science and addressing shortcomings of subgrid-scale parameterizations and numerical methods, but the engagement of NOAA and industry also provided paths to immediate dissemination of the results to operational users. As a consequence, improved treatments of vertical mixing and surface friction in complex terrain are now included in the NWS operational forecasts. Further, decision support tools have been developed and transferred to the wind energy industry. These tools include both improved modeling and quantification of associated forecast uncertainties in an interface that allows easy visualization of both forecast power ramps and the confidence associated with them.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1687-1699
Number of pages13
JournalBulletin of the American Meteorological Society
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 American Meteorological Society.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5000-72581


  • complex terrain
  • mesoscale
  • microscale
  • modeling
  • overview
  • WFIP2
  • wind energy


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