The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2: Executive Summary

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants, and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Studyevaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages40
StatePublished - 2013

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-5500-58798


  • costs
  • cycling
  • electric power systems
  • grid
  • integration study
  • National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
  • NREL
  • ramping
  • solar
  • variable generation
  • wear and tear
  • Western Interconnection
  • Western Wind and Solar Integration Study
  • wind


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