Thermal Design Analysis for SuperTruck II Lithium-Titanate Battery Pack

Charles Okaeme, Chuanbo Yang, Aron Saxon, Jason Lustbader, Darek Villeneuve, Chihao Mac, Thomas Reed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus Citations


This paper presents a systematic thermal management analysis for a new lithium-titanate-oxide battery pack to be installed in a SuperTruck II, Class 8 hybrid truck. The authors investigate the feasibility of mounting the battery pack inside the vehicle and air-cooling it with fans supplying conditioned air from the cabin. Moreover, the cells within each module are to be immersed in a heat-transfer fluid to improve temperature homogeneity. A multi-stage thermal analysis is performed to ensure adequate thermal regulation of the battery under the proposed design, considering installation and operational constraints. The authors perform thermal and electrical characterization tests on a single cell. Results inform the development of computational fluid dynamics models of the cells, modules, and pack. Module-level analysis shows that the cell temperatures can be maintained below their upper operational limit of 55 °C with module wall-to-air heat transfer coefficients between 10 and 20 Wm−2K−1. Pack-level analysis of distinct configurations determines effective airflow paths for adequate heat transfer and delivers a final battery pack design that achieves sufficient cooling and temperature uniformity. A reduced-order electrothermal model is developed to rapidly predict the transient battery performance and to develop a temperature control strategy.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number105753
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Energy Storage
Issue numberPart A
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-80748


  • Battery simulation
  • Battery thermal
  • Hybrid truck battery
  • Lithium-titanate-oxide (LTO)
  • Thermal management


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