Three-Stage Variability-Based Reserve Modifiers for Enhancing Flexibility Reserve Requirements under High Variable Generation Penetrations

Ibrahim Krad, David Gao, Eduardo Ibanez, Erik Ela

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus Citations

Abstract

The electric power system has continuously evolved in order to accommodate new technologies and operating strategies. As the penetration of integrated variable generation in the system increases, it is beneficial to develop strategies that can help mitigate their effect on the grid. Historically, power system operators have held excess capacity during the commitment and dispatch process to allow the system to handle unforeseen load ramping events. As variable generation resources increase, sufficient flexibility scheduled in the system is required to ensure that system performance is not deteriorated in the presence of additional variability and uncertainty. This paper presents a systematic comparison of various flexibility reserve strategies. Several of them are implemented and applied in a common test system, in order to evaluate their effect on the economic and reliable operations. Furthermore, a three stage reserve modifier algorithm is proposed and evaluated for its ability to improve system performance.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)522-528
Number of pages7
JournalElectric Power Systems Research
Volume141
DOIs
StatePublished - 2016

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-67718

Keywords

  • area control error (ACE)
  • flexibility reserves
  • operating reserves
  • uncertainty
  • variability
  • variable generation (VG)

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