Time-Dependent Electric Bus and Charging Station Deployment Problem

Yi He, Zhaocai Liu, Yiming Zhang, Ziqi Song

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus Citations


Battery electric buses (BEBs) have gained popularity due to their emission-free and energy-efficient features. Many transit authorities worldwide have set goals to gradually replace their bus fleets with BEBs. Considering the potential decline in BEB battery and charger prices, this study proposes a time-dependent bus fleet transition model to determine the optimal bus fleet transition plan, which includes selecting the bus lines to be electrified, determining the timing and type of BEBs to be purchased, and deploying on-route fast chargers and depot chargers. The model is a bi-objective integer linear program that considers the trade-off between electrified transit mileages and bus electrification costs. A normalized normal constraint method is applied to solve the bi-objective optimization model. The effectiveness of the proposed model is tested using a real-world bus network. Additionally, sensitivity analyses are conducted to better understand the impact of different parameter values on the optimal solutions. Our proposed model can provide transit authorities with a powerful tool to make informed decisions about their BEB fleet replacement plans.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number128227
Number of pages12
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Ltd

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-2C00-86984


  • Battery electric buses
  • Charging station deployment
  • Declining battery and charger price
  • Time-dependent fleet transition


Dive into the research topics of 'Time-Dependent Electric Bus and Charging Station Deployment Problem'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this