Titanium Carbide MXene Hole Contacts for CdTe Photovoltaics

Benjamin Sartor, Jason Rohr, Jason Lipton, Joel Duenow, Adam Goad, Juan Meng, Matthew Reese, Andre Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus Citations


CdTe is a high-efficiency thin-film photovoltaic technology that has seen tremendous commercial success over the past decade. Yet despite the improvement of other device characteristics, the fabrication of an ohmic hole back contact layer has remained a challenge due to the high ionization potential of CdTe, which limits the external potential that can be feasibly reached even as other characteristics of the device improve. MXenes, a family of 2D materials with rapidly growing scientific and commercial interest, offer a promising route to forming low-cost, low-barrier contacts due to their demonstrated high work function, metallic conductivity, and facile solution processing from benign solvents. Here, it is shown that Ti3C2Tx MXene films processed from an aqueous colloidal dispersion can perform as a highly efficient hole contact material for CdTe solar cells, resulting in high power-conversion efficiencies. The role of the Schottky barrier formation in Ti3C2Tx-contacted CdTe devices is probed, and potential pathways for the future development of this potent combination of materials are elucidated. The modularity of the expansive MXene family of materials presents a promising strategy for developing next-generation hole contacts for CdTe solar cells.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number2200366
Number of pages6
JournalSolar RRL
Issue number11
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Wiley-VCH GmbH.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-82582


  • cadmium telluride
  • hole transport
  • MXenes
  • photovoltaics
  • Schottky barriers


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