Towards Stable and Commercially Available Perovskite Solar Cells

Kai Zhu, Keith Emery, Nam-Gyu Park, Michael Gratzel, Tsutomu Miyasaka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

942 Scopus Citations


Solar cells employing a halide perovskite with an organic cation now show power conversion efficiency of up to 22%. However, these cells are facing issues towards commercialization, such as the need to achieve long-term stability and the development of a manufacturing method for the reproducible fabrication of high-performance devices. Here, we propose a strategy to obtain stable and commercially viable perovskite solar cells. A reproducible manufacturing method is suggested, as well as routes to manage grain boundaries and interfacial charge transport. Electroluminescence is regarded as a metric to gauge theoretical efficiency. We highlight how optimizing the design of device architectures is important not only for achieving high efficiency but also for hysteresis-free and stable performance. We argue that reliable device characterization is needed to ensure the advance of this technology towards practical applications. We believe that perovskite-based devices can be competitive with silicon solar modules, and discuss issues related to the safe management of toxic material.

Original languageAmerican English
Article numberArticle No. 16152
Number of pages8
JournalNature Energy
Issue number11
StatePublished - 19 Sep 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-66413


  • grain boundaries
  • interfacial charge transport
  • manufacturing
  • perovskite
  • solar cells


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