Tracking Internal Temperature and Structural Dynamics during Nail Penetration of Lithium-Ion Cells

Donal Finegan, Bernhard Tjaden, Thomas Heenan, Rhodri Jervis, Marco DiMichiel, Alexander Rack, Gareth Hinds, Dan Brett, Paul Shearing

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

115 Scopus Citations

Abstract

Mechanical abuse of lithium-ion batteries is widely used during testing to induce thermal runaway, characterize associated risks, and expose cell and module vulnerabilities. However, the repeatability of puncture or ‘nail penetration’ tests is a key issue as there is often a high degree of variability in the resulting thermal runaway process. In this work, the failure mechanisms of 18650 cells punctured at different locations and orientations are characterized with respect to their internal structural degradation, and both their internal and surface temperature, all of which are monitored in real time. The initiation and propagation of thermal runaway is visualized via high-speed synchrotron X-ray radiography at 2000 frames per second, and the surface and internal temperatures are recorded via infrared imaging and a thermocouple embedded in the tip of the penetrating nail, respectively. The influence of the nail, as well as how and where it penetrates the cell, on the initiation and propagation of thermal runaway is described and the suitability of this test method for representing in-field failures is discussed.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)A3285-A3291
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Volume164
Issue number13
DOIs
StatePublished - 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2017. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-68877

Keywords

  • lithium ion batteries
  • nail penetration
  • x-ray imaging

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