Transmission Expansion Planning Test System for AC/DC Hybrid Grid With High Variable Renewable Energy Penetration

Zhenyu Zhuo, Ning Zhang, Jingwei Yang, Chongqing Kang, Charlie Smith, Mark O'Malley, Benjamin Kroposki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

104 Scopus Citations


Test systems are important tools and benchmark for power system research. Currently, there is a lack of standard test systems for modern transmission expansion planning (TEP) research, especially under high variable renewable energy (VRE) penetrations. This article describes a 38-bus test system named the HRP-38 system dedicated to TEP. 'HRP' stands for high renewable penetration. The objective of establishing such a system is to provide a consistent platform for different TEP methods to be tested and compared. The test system considers high VRE penetration of more than 30% energy share, which will be an important feature in many power systems in the future. Both AC and DC candidate lines are given to provide sufficient transmission planning alternatives. The complexity of the test system is well balanced considering calculation tractability and the ability to test the performance of the TEP planning model. The network topology, generation mix and load characteristics are described in detail. Year-round time series of VRE (wind power and PV) output and load curves for each bus are provided to facilitate a detailed evaluation of the transmission grid configuration under high VRE penetration. Finally, four benchmark results with different optimization settings are provided for the HRP-38 system.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number8931650
Pages (from-to)2597-2608
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1969-2012 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-78097


  • AC/DC hybrid
  • high penetration
  • renewable energy
  • test system
  • Transmission network planning


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