Transparent Conductive Adhesives for Tandem Solar Cells

Manuel Schnabel, Talysa Klein, Emily Warren, Pauls Stradins, Adele Tamboli, Marinus Van Hest

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


Methods of making silicon based tandem cells include wafer bonding, depositing absorber layers on the surface, and mechanical stacking. Of these, mechanically stacking after growth retains the individual cell quality during production, but typically requires a four-terminal device. We present a transparent conductive adhesive (TCA) interlayer, designed for transparency in wavelengths that Si absorbs, conductivity for out-of-plane conductivity between cells, and adhesive strength, enabling two-terminal stacked tandems. The developed TCA material is a polymer-particle blend of common transparent adhesives and metal-coated flexible microspheres, capable of bridging micro-scale gaps between uneven/textured surfaces. At 10% microsphere coverage, experimental and theoretical series resistance is compatible with high-efficiency tandem cells on silicon.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages6
StatePublished - 2018
Event2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC) - Washington, D.C.
Duration: 25 Jun 201730 Jun 2017


Conference2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC)
CityWashington, D.C.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5900-73958


  • lamination
  • microspheres
  • polymer-particle blends
  • tandem solar cells
  • transparent conductive adhesive


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