Two-Phase Spray Cooling of Hybrid Vehicle Electronics

Issam Mudawar, Desikan Bharathan, Kenneth Kelly, Sreekant Narumanchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

149 Scopus Citations


As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Power Electronics and Electric Machines program area, the DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is currently leading a national effort to develop next-generation cooling technologies for hybrid vehicle electronics. Spray cooling has been identified as a potential solution that can dissipate 150-200 W/cm2 while maintaining the chip temperature below 125 ° C. This paper explores the viability and implementation of this cooling scheme. First, commercial coolants are assessed for their suitability to this application in terms of thermal, environmental, and safety concerns and material compatibility. In this assessment, HFE-7100 is identified as the optimum coolant in all performance categories. Next, spray models are used to determine the HFE-7100 spray conditions that meet such stringent heat dissipation requirements. These findings are verified experimentally, demonstrating that spray cooling is a viable thermal management solution for hybrid vehicle electronics.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)501-512
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2009

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-540-43986


  • Boiling
  • Critical heat flux (CHF)
  • Dielectric coolant
  • Hybrid vehicles
  • Phase change
  • Power electronics
  • Refrigerant
  • Sprays


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