Ultra-Fast Frequency Response of Converter-Dominant Grids Using PMUs: Preprint

Vahan Gevorgian, Hugo Villegas Pico

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


The incorporation of converter-based power sources can act as a substitute for synchronous machine-based generators in an electric power grid. Because power converters are not intrinsically sensitive to frequency transients, the frequency response of these grids might deteriorate. To lessen large frequency excursions, this paper proposes a method to counteract load-generation imbalances by commanding ultra-fast frequency-responding converter-based assets such as wind and battery energy storage. The set points derive from the amount of the imbalance, which is estimated using phasor measurement units (PMUs). Because the proposed technique depends on communications networks, local converter frequency control using an aggressive frequency droop function is also proposed to mitigate negative impacts by communications failures and/or cyberattacks. The benefits of the technique are demonstrated on a modified version of the IEEE 39-bus test power system, which incorporates optimally located PMUs as well as wind, solar, and battery energy storage assets. The paper showcases that the proposed developments are instrumental to maintaining frequency close to nominal during relatively large load-generation imbalances and cyberattacks.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages9
StatePublished - 2020
Event18th Wind Integration Workshop - Dublin, Ireland
Duration: 16 Oct 201918 Oct 2019


Conference18th Wind Integration Workshop
CityDublin, Ireland

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5D00-75042


  • converter
  • electric grid
  • frequency
  • phasor measurement unit
  • PMU


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