Ultrasonic Spray Deposition for Production of Organic Solar Cells

K. Xerxes Steirer, Matthew O. Reese, Benjamin L. Rupert, Nikos Kopidakis, Dana C. Olson, Reuben T. Collins, David S. Ginley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

164 Scopus Citations


Recent improvements of organic photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies have motivated development of scalable processing techniques. We compare chlorobenzene and p-xylene, as solvents with similar bulk properties, in a case study of ultrasonic spray depositions of bulk heterojunction layers in photovoltaic devices. Structure and morphology of spray-deposited films are investigated via small-angle X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. Unique phases are observed in bulk heterostructure films sprayed from p-xylene. Films sprayed from chlorobenzene resulted in higher device efficiencies than p-xylene due to large differences in film morphologies. Carrier loss mechanisms are also investigated. Post-production annealing increases power conversion efficiency to 3.2% when chlorobenzene is used.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)447-453
Number of pages7
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2009

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-520-44463


  • Bulk heterojunction
  • Deposition
  • Organic
  • Photovoltaic
  • Process
  • Spray


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