Ultrasonically Sprayed and Inkjet Printed Thin Film Electrodes for Organic Solar Cells

K. Xerxes Steirer, Joseph J. Berry, Matthew O. Reese, Maikel F.A.M. van Hest, Alex Miedaner, Matthew W. Liberatore, R. T. Collins, David S. Ginley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

99 Scopus Citations


Thin film pi-conjugated poly(3,4ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulphonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as a hole transport layer on indium tin oxide is a key element in some of the most efficient organic photovoltaic and light emitting devices to date. Films are typically deposited by spincoating, which is not readily scalable. In this paper we investigate the critical parameters for both inkjet and ultrasonic spray deposition of PEDOT:PSS thin films on commercial indium tin oxide as a potentially scalable approach to contact formation. Inkjet parameters investigated include drop spacing and substrate temperature. Ultrasonic spray coating parameters investigated include substrate temperature and solution flow rate. We also show that the ink viscosity has a Newtonian character, making it well suited for inkjet printing. Films were characterized via optical profilometry, sheet resistance and atomic force microscopy. Optimized inkjet printed and ultrasonic sprayed PEDOT:PSS films were then compared to spincast layers in a prototypical bulk heterojunction photovoltaic device employing a poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-PCBM (6,6-phenylC61-butric acid-methyl ester) blend as the absorber. Practically all three approaches produced devices of comparable efficiency. Efficiencies were 3.6%, 3.5% and 3.3% for spin, spray and inkjet depositions respectively.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)2781-2786
Number of pages6
JournalThin Solid Films
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2009

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-520-44476


  • Inkjet printing
  • Large-scale processing
  • Organic solar cells
  • Ultrasonic spray deposition


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