Understanding and Eliminating Hysteresis for Highly Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells

Chuanxiao Xiao, Chun Sheng Jiang, Mowafak Al-Jassim, Changlei Wang, Yue Yu, Dewei Zhao, Rasha Awni, Corey Grice, Kiran Ghimire, Danae Constantinou, Weiqiang Liao, Alexander Cimaroli, Pei Liu, Jing Chen, Nikolas Podraza, Xingzhong Zhao, Yanfa Yan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

191 Scopus Citations


Through detailed device characterization using cross-sectional Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and trap density of states measurements, we identify that the J–V hysteresis seen in planar organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) using SnO2 electron selective layers (ESLs) synthesized by low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic-layer deposition (PEALD) method is mainly caused by the imbalanced charge transportation between the ESL/perovskite and the hole selective layer/perovskite interfaces. We find that this charge transportation imbalance is originated from the poor electrical conductivity of the low-temperature PEALD SnO2 ESL. We further discover that a facile low-temperature thermal annealing of SnO2 ESLs can effectively improve the electrical mobility of low-temperature PEALD SnO2 ESLs and consequently significantly reduce or even eliminate the J–V hysteresis. With the reduction of J–V hysteresis and optimization of deposition process, planar PVSCs with stabilized output powers up to 20.3% are achieved. The results of this study provide insights for further enhancing the efficiency of planar PVSCs.

Original languageAmerican English
JournalAdvanced Energy Materials
Issue number17
StatePublished - 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-68335


  • hysteresis
  • Kelvin probe force microscopy
  • perovskite solar cells
  • post annealing


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