Understanding Inertial and Frequency Response of Wind Power Plants

E. Muljadi, V. Gevorgian, M. Singh, S. Santoso

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

156 Scopus Citations


The objective of this paper is to analyze and quantify the inertia and frequency responses of wind power plants with different wind turbine technologies (particularly those of fixed speed, variable slip with rotor-resistance controls, and variable speed with vector controls). The fundamental theory, the operating range, and the modifications needed for the wind turbine to contribute to the inertial and primary frequency response during the frequency drop will be presented in this paper. We will demonstrate practical approaches to allow variable slip and speed wind turbines to contribute inertia to the host power system grid. The approaches are based on the inclusion of frequency error and the rate of change of frequency signals in the torque control loop and pitch control actions for wind speeds below and above its rated value. Detailed simulation models in the time domain will be conducted to demonstrate the efficacy of the approaches.

Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages8
StatePublished - 2012
Event2012 IEEE Power Electronics and Machines in Wind Applications, PEMWA 2012 - Denver, CO, United States
Duration: 16 Jul 201218 Jul 2012


Conference2012 IEEE Power Electronics and Machines in Wind Applications, PEMWA 2012
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityDenver, CO

Bibliographical note

See NREL/CP-5500-55335 for preprint

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5500-57552


  • frequency response
  • governor response
  • inertial response
  • wind turbine


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