Upside-Down Solar Cell Achieves Record Efficiencies (Fact Sheet)

    Research output: NRELFact Sheet


    The inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cell is an exercise in efficient innovation - literally, as the technology boasted the highest demonstrated efficiency for converting sunlight into electrical energy at its debut in 2005. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) inverted the conventional photovoltaic (PV) structure to revolutionary effect, achieving solarconversion efficiencies of 33.8% and 40.8% under one-sun and concentrated conditions, respectively.
    Original languageAmerican English
    Number of pages2
    StatePublished - 2010

    NREL Publication Number

    • NREL/FS-6A42-49151


    • concentrating photovoltaics (CPV)
    • concentrating photovoltaics (CPV)
    • CPV
    • efficiency
    • flexible
    • gallium arsenide
    • gallium indium arsenide (GaInAs)
    • gallium indium phosphide (GaInP)
    • IMM solar cell
    • inverted metamorphic multijunction solar cell
    • lattice mismatched
    • lattice spacing
    • lightweight
    • multijunction
    • optimal bandgaps
    • quadruple junction
    • space
    • terrestrial


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