U.S. Federal Policy Considerations for the Management of Retired Large-Format Batteries

Research output: NRELPresentation


The global demand for large-format batteries used in electric vehicles (EV) and battery energy storage is expected to continue as governments call for zero emission policies. Total installed large-scale stationary battery energy storage is expected to increase almost 20-fold in the coming years - from 17 GW installed globally in 2020 to 358 GW projected in 2030. Similarly, light duty EVs sales globally are expected to increase more than 8-fold from 2020 to 2030 - from 3 million units to 25 million units. The expected demand for large-format batteries brings supply chain concerns, and economic opportunities. Domestic reuse and recycling is one potential circular economy solution for large-format batteries. This presentation discusses current U.S. law and regulatory landscape for the reuse and recycling of large-format batteries, and how certain policy frameworks impact reuse and end-of-life management decisions for large-format battery materials.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages8
StatePublished - 2022

Publication series

NamePresented at the Carbon Neutral Vehicles & LCA Congress Conference, 19-21 January 2022

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/PR-6A20-81975


  • battery
  • battery energy storage
  • BES
  • carbon neutral
  • cars
  • circular economy
  • climate change
  • electric vehicle
  • end of life
  • large format
  • policy
  • recycle
  • regulation
  • reuse
  • zero emissions


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