Utility Green Pricing Programs: Design, Implementation, and Consumer Response

    Research output: NRELTechnical Report


    The term green pricing refers to programs offered by utilities in traditionally regulated electricity markets, which allow customers to support the development of renewable energy sources by paying a small premium on their electric bills. Since the introduction of the concept in the United States, the number of unique utility green pricing programs has expanded from just a few programs in 1993 tomore than 90 in 2002. About 10% of U.S. utilities offered a green pricing option to about 26 million consumers by the end of 2002. This report provides: 1) aggregate industry data on consumer response to utility programs, which indicate the collective impact of green pricing on renewable energy development nationally; and 2) market data that can be used by utilities as a benchmark for gaugingthe relative success of their green pricing programs. Specifically, the paper presents current data and trends in consumer response to green pricing, as measured by renewable energy sales, participants, participation rates, and new renewable energy capacity supported. It presents data on various aspects of program design and implementation, such as product pricing, ownership of supplies,retention rates, marketing costs, the effectiveness of marketing techniques, and methods of enrolling and providing value to customers.
    Original languageAmerican English
    Number of pages33
    StatePublished - 2004

    NREL Publication Number

    • NREL/TP-620-35618


    • analysis
    • Blair Swezey
    • consumer response
    • customer participation rates
    • green energy
    • green power markets
    • green power products
    • green pricing programs
    • null
    • null
    • price premiums
    • renewable energy capacity installations
    • renewable energy supplies
    • utility green pricing programs


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