Validation of Interconnection and Interoperability of Grid-Forming Inverters Sourced by Hydrogen Technologies in View of 100% Renewable Microgrids

Research output: NRELPresentation


Grid-forming assets are required in microgrids to act as voltage-frequency masters. These grid-forming assets can operate in two modes of operation: grid-following mode and grid-forming mode. In grid-following mode of operation, these assets will follow real power and reactive power setpoints and in grid-forming mode of operation these assets will follow voltage and frequency setpoints. Traditionally, diesel generators or natural gas-based generators are widely used to act as a voltage-frequency master. However, many utilities are aiming to replace generators with grid forming-inverters supplied by solar photovoltaics (PV), batteries or fuel cells. Since grid-forming assets need a long-term reliable energy source, fuel cells are a reasonable and viable choice to supply the grid-forming inverters, but some of the challenges facing the wide deployment of grid-forming fuel cell inverters need to be addressed. Specifically, in our proposed work, we aim to focus on the interconnection and interoperability requirements of grid-forming fuel cell inverters. Currently, state-of-the-art fuel cell inverters follow the general interconnection requirements of distributed energy resources (DERs) and general interoperability requirements of DERs, but these requirements were built with PV and battery systems in mind. Fuel cells have different operational requirements, and therefore these requirements need to be appropriately modified for the grid operators to use. These additional steps add to the investment and operational cost to the grid operators. Through the ARIES platform, this proposed project aims to bridge this gap and use power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) and controller hardware-in-the-loop (CHIL) experiments to inform the creation of open-source interconnection and interoperability information that can aid in faster and cheaper installation and operation of grid-forming fuel cell inverters.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages20
StatePublished - 2023

Publication series

NamePresented at the 2023 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), 5-8 June 2023, Arlington, Virginia

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/PR-5D00-85598


  • grid-forming
  • interoperability
  • voltage-frequency


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