Value to the Grid from Managed Charging Based on California's High Renewables Study

Anthony Markel, Jennie Jorgenson, Kevin Walkowicz, Jiucai Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus Citations


Managed charging of electric vehicle (EV) loads has the potential to use renewable energy more effectively, shave peak demand, and fill demand valleys while serving transportation needs. However, the potential value to the grid from managed charging has not been fully quantified. This paper adopts the tools used in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's California Low Carbon Grid Study to quantify value to the grid from managed charging by using three levels of managed loads for 13 TW·h of annual load from three million EVs in a 2030 California grid scenario. Simulation results show that management of the EV fleet's aggregate load from unmanaged to 100% managed results in savings between 210 million and 660 million annually in generation system costs, depending on grid conditions. The simulation results also suggest that targeted EV supply equipment (EVSE) deployments at workplaces and other mid-day parking locations will be needed to support managed charging in a high-renewables California and enable the identified value to the grid. Although the value of generation to the grid from managed EV load paired with high renewables seems substantial, we estimate that the installed cost of an EVSE must be between 1000 and 3000 for a ten-year life to be cost neutral, depending on grid conditions.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number8477179
Pages (from-to)831-840
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1969-2012 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-73823


  • electric vehicles
  • managed loads
  • renewables
  • smart charging


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