Vapor Phase Deposition of Perovskite Photovoltaics: Short Track to Commercialization?

Tobias Abzieher, David Moore, Marcel Ross, Steve Albrecht, Jared Silvia, Hairen Tan, Quentin Jeangros, Christophe Ballif, Maximilian Hoerantner, Beom-Soo Kim, Henk Bolink, Paul Pistor, Jan Christoph Goldschmidt, Yu-Hsien Chiang, Samuel Stranks, Juliane Borchert, Michael McGehee, Monica Morales-Masis, Jay Patel, Annalisa BrunoUlrich Paetzold

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus Citations


While perovskite-based photovoltaics (PV) is progressing toward commercialization, it remains an open question which fabrication technology - solution-based, vapor-based, or combinations - will pave the way to faster economic breakthrough. The vast majority of research studies make use of solution-processed perovskite thin films, which benefit from a rapid optimization feedback and inexpensive to procure tools in modern research laboratories, but vapor phase deposition processes dominate today's established thin-film manufacturing. As research and development of vapor phase processed perovskite thin films are still strongly underrepresented in literature, their full potential is yet to be identified. In this collaborative perspective of academic influenced by industrial views, we convey a balanced viewpoint on the prospects of vapor-based processing of perovskite PV at an industrial scale. Our perspective highlights the conceptual advantages of vapor phase deposition, discusses the most crucial process parameters in a technology assessment, contains an overview about relevant global industry clusters, and provides an outlook on the commercialization perspectives of the perovskite technology in general.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1645-1663
Number of pages19
JournalEnergy and Environmental Science
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-4B00-88518


  • perovskites
  • vapor deposition


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