Vehicle Powertrain Simulation Accuracy for Various Drive Cycle Frequencies and Upsampling Techniques

Franz O'Meally, Jacob Holden, Madeline Gilleran

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review


As connected and automated vehicle technologies emerge and proliferate, lower frequency vehicle trajectory data is becoming more widely available. In some cases, entire fleets are streaming position, speed, and telemetry at sample rates of less than 10 seconds. This presents opportunities to apply powertrain simulators such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator to model how advanced powertrain technologies would perform in the real world. However, connected vehicle data tends to be available at lower temporal frequencies than the 1-10 Hz trajectories that have typically been used for powertrain simulation. Higher frequency data, typically used for simulation, is costly to collect and store and therefore is often limited in density and geography. This paper explores the suitability of lower frequency, high availability, connected vehicle data for detailed powertrain simulation. A large data set of 1 Hz trajectories is used to quantify the accuracy loss when simulating energy consumption for conventional, hybrid, and battery electric powertrains using less than 1 Hz data. Techniques to upsample lower frequency drive cycle data in order to increase accuracy are also explored. Median energy consumption errors when simulating energy consumption for a 1/10 Hz trajectory are found to be 3-6% when compared to 1 Hz trajectories. Applying upsampling and interpolation techniques are shown to reduce the simulation errors by roughly 50%. The findings in this work can guide connected vehicle data collection specifications and processing techniques applied when using collected data for powertrain simulation.

Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages6
StatePublished - 11 Apr 2023
EventSAE 2023 World Congress Experience, WCX 2023 - Detroit, United States
Duration: 18 Apr 202320 Apr 2023


ConferenceSAE 2023 World Congress Experience, WCX 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Alliance for Sustainable Energy.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5400-85024

Other Report Number

  • SAE Technical Paper No. 2023-01-0345


  • connected vehicle data
  • powertrain simulation
  • signal processing
  • transportation


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