Virtual Synchronous Machine Grid-Forming Inverter Model Specification (REGFM_B1)

Wei Du, Sebastian Achilles, Deepak Ramasubramanian, Philip Hart, Shruti Rao, Wenzong Wang, Quan Nguyen, Jinho Kim, Qian Zhang, Hanchao Liu, Pedro Arsuaga Santos, James Weber, Juan Sanchez, Mengxi Chen, Jayapalan Senthil, Pouyan Pourbeik, Udoka Nwaneto, Jeff Bloemink, Song Wang, Doug TuckerSongzhe Zhu, Ben Kroposki (NREL Technical Monitor)

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


This report describes a generic virtual synchronous machine (VSM) grid-forming inverter (GFM) model - REGFM_B1. The initial model specification was proposed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), General Electric (GE), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy (SGRE) also provided inputs to the specification. The model specification has been revised multiple times based on the discussions between all the contributors listed in this report. This work was funded by the Universal Interoperability for Grid-Forming Inverters (UNIFI) Consortium. This generic model is developed to help the utility industry understand the concept of VSM GFMs. The model could be used to represent equipment for long-term planning studies where vendor-specific models are not available. As equipment mature and improve, generic models will be updated to capture the new functionalities of GFMs. It is not intended that these models will always remain representative of all future GFM technologies.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages10
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-5D00-90260


  • grid-forming (GFM)
  • inverter
  • model
  • synchronous machine


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