Voltage-Based Strategies for Preventing Battery Degradation under Diverse Fast-Charging Conditions

Zachary Konz, Peter Weddle, Paul Gasper, Bryan McCloskey, Andrew Colclasure

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus Citations


Maintaining safe operating conditions is a key challenge for high-performance lithium-ion battery applications. The lithium-plating reaction remains a risk during charging, but limited studies consider the highly variable charging conditions possible in commercial cells. Here we combine pseudo-2D electrochemical modeling with data visualization methods to reveal important relationships between the measurable cell voltage and difficult-to-predict Li-plating onset criteria. An extensively validated model is used to compute Li plating for thousands of multistep charging conditions spanning diverse rates, temperatures, states-of-charge, and cell aging. We observe an empirical cell operating voltage limit below which plating does not occur across all conditions, and this limit varies with the battery state-of-charge and aging. A model sensitivity analysis also indicates that, when comparing two charging voltage profiles, the capacity difference at 4.0 V correlates well with the difference in the plating onset capacity. These results encourage simple strategies for Li-plating prevention that are complementary to existing battery controls.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)4069-4077
Number of pages9
JournalACS Energy Letters
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Chemical Society.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5700-87434


  • degradation
  • fast charge
  • lithium-ion battery
  • lithium-plating
  • P2D model


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