Voltage-Matched Strings using 3-Terminal Tandems: Fundamentals and End Losses

William McMahon, Henning Schulte-Huxel, Jeronimo Buencuerpo, Michelle Young, Talysa Klein, John Geisz, Adele Tamboli, Emily Warren

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


Strings constructed from 3-terminal tandem (3TT) cells can provide some of the performance benefits of voltage-matching with less cell complexity than strings based on 4-terminal tandem cells. However, the circuitry for a 3TT string can become more complex, making circuit analysis more challenging. Here we illustrate the essential features of single-polarity voltage-matched (VM) 3TT strings using representative examples. End losses are intrinsic to this type of string, but can be reduced by minimizing m and n in the Vtop/Vbot VM ratio m/n, and further mitigated by increasing the string length. This analysis agrees with preliminary experimental results.
Original languageAmerican English
StatePublished - 2021
Event2020 47th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) - Calgary, Canada
Duration: 15 Jun 202021 Aug 2020


Conference2020 47th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC)
CityCalgary, Canada

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5900-75894


  • 3TT
  • 4TT
  • single-polarity voltage
  • strings


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