Voltage Regulation in Distribution Grids: A Survey

Priyank Srivastava, Rabab Haider, Vineet Nair, Venkatesh Venkataramanan, Anuradha Annaswamy, Anurag Srivastava

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus Citations


Environmental and sustainability concerns have caused a recent surge in the penetration of distributed energy resources into the power grid. This may lead to voltage violations in the distribution systems making voltage regulation more relevant than ever. Owing to this and rapid advancements in sensing, communication, and computation technologies, the literature on voltage control techniques is growing at a rapid pace in distribution networks. In particular, there is a paradigm shift from traditional offline centralized approaches to distributed ones leveraging increased and varied types of actuators, real-time sensing, fast and efficient computations, and an overall distributed situational awareness. This paper reviews state-of-the-art voltage control algorithms, summarizes the underlying methods, and classifies their coordination mechanisms into local, centralized, distributed, and decentralized. The underlying solution methodologies are further classified into two categories, open-loop and feedback-based. Two specific example workflows are provided to illustrate these solutions for voltage regulation.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)165-181
Number of pages17
JournalAnnual Reviews in Control
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Ltd

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5R00-86087


  • Distributed algorithms
  • Distributed energy resources
  • Feedback-based optimization
  • Power flow
  • Voltage regulation


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