Western Interconnection Flexibility Assessment: Final Report

Brian Hodge, Gregory Brinkman, Anthony Florita, Nick Schlag, Arne Olson, Elaine Hart, Ana Mileva, Ryan Jones, David Biagioni

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


This study was jointly undertaken by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) and the Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB) to investigate the need for power system flexibility to ensure reliable and economic operations of the interconnected Western electricity system under higher penetrations of variable energy resources. WECC and WIEB have partnered with E3 and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to investigate these questions using advanced, stochastic reliability modeling and production cost modeling techniques. The study identifies and examines operational challenges and potential enabling strategies for renewable integration under a wide range of operating conditions, scenarios, and sensitivities across the Western Interconnection, with the goal of providing guidance to operators, planners, regulators and policymakers about changing system conditions under higher renewable penetration.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages306
StatePublished - 2015

Bibliographical note

Published by Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3), San Francisco, California. Final Report: https://www.wecc.biz/Reliability/WECC_Flexibility_Assessment_Report_2016-01-11.pdf; Executive Summary: https://www.wecc.biz/Reliability/WECC_Flexibility_Assessment_ExecSumm_2016-01-11.pdf

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-5D00-65625


  • electric power grid
  • flexibility
  • integration
  • National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
  • NREL
  • reliability
  • renewable generation


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