Wind Farm Blockage Effects: Comparison of Different Engineering Models

Emmanuel Branlard, Eliot Quon, Alexander Meyer Forsting, Jennifer King, Patrick Moriarty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus Citations


The work presents four engineering methods to estimate the induction zone in front of a wind turbine and account for the wind farm blockage effect. The methods comprise the vortex cylinder model, vortex dipole model, self-similar model, and wake projection model. The majority of the models presented account for yaw misalignments and ground effect. Actuator disk simulations are used to verify the individual models. The performance of each model is evaluated both in terms of precision and computational time. The induction models are coupled to wake models within the FLOw Redirection and Induction in Steady State framework to provide the full velocity field within a wind farm. Sample wind farm computations are presented, and the impact of including induction effects into wind farm performance predictions is reported. The different codes are publicly available online.

Original languageAmerican English
Article numberArticle No. 062036
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Physics: Conference Series
Issue number6
StatePublished - 22 Sep 2020
EventScience of Making Torque from Wind 2020, TORQUE 2020 - Virtual, Online, Netherlands
Duration: 28 Sep 20202 Oct 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5000-76855


  • blockage effect
  • induction zone
  • wakes
  • wind farm


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