xLi2MnO3 (1-x)LiMeO2 and Li4Ti5O12 Cell Chemistry for Behind-the-Meter Storage Applications

Yicheng Zhang, Glenn Teeter, Young Jin Kim, Anthony Burrell, Kyusung Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Li- and Mn-rich layered oxide material (xLi2MnO3·(1-x)LiMeO2, Me = Ni, Mn, and etc., LMR-NM) is paired with Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) in a full cell and evaluated for the Behind-the-Meter Storage (BTMS) applications. The LMR-NM/LTO full cell shows very high capacities and excellent long-term cycle life. It delivers 192 mAh g−1 after 500 cycles at C/2 and 45 °C with a capacity retention of 75 % and coulombic efficiency higher than 99.95 %. It also has impressive rate capabilities. A capacity of 220 mAh g−1 is achieved at 2C which is 88 % of the initial capacity at C/10. The high cycling temperature clearly enhances electrochemical kinetics and activates more Li2MnO3 component, which gives high capacities, low cell impedance, and better rate capabilities. Moreover, it helps to form a relatively thick cathode-electrolyte interphase (CEI) film to suppress transition metal dissolution from the cathode surface. The upper cut-off voltage (UCV) of 3.0 V keeps the structural integrity of the cathode during cycling. A higher UCV of 3.2 V accelerates structural instabilities of the cathode as well as growth of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) via transition metal dissolution and deposition on the anode surface. It results in higher cell impedance, worse capacity retention and faster capacity fade.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number107226
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Energy Storage
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Ltd

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-84140


  • Behind-the-Meter Storage
  • Electrode-electrolyte interphases
  • Li- and Mn-rich layered oxides
  • lithium-ion batteries
  • Long-term cycle life
  • Transition metal dissolution


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