Zn-Ni-Co-O Wide-Band-Gap p-Type Conductive Oxides with High Work Functions

A. Zakutayev, J. D. Perkins, P. A. Parilla, N. E. Widjonarko, A. K. Sigdel, J. J. Berry, D. S. Ginley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus Citations


Co3O4-based spinels are a new class of wide-band-gap p-type conductive oxides with high work functions. We examined the structures, conductivities, work functions, and optical spectra of quaternary Zn–Ni–Co–O thin films across the entire spinel region of the ZnO–NiO–Co3O4 diagram using a high-throughput combinatorial approach. We found that the conductivity of as-deposited films is maximized (100 S/cm) and optical absorption (at 1.8 eV) is minimized in different regions of the diagram, while the work function of annealed films is high and relatively constant (5.8 ± 0.1 eV). These properties made Zn–Ni–Co–O thin films applicable as p-type interlayers in solar cells. As an example, amorphous Zn–Co–O hole transport layers had good performance in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)23-26
Number of pages4
JournalMRS Communications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Nov 2011

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5200-58143


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